职称英语考试(英译汉)复习资料

英译汉(共183道)
试题编号说明:
举例: 111即代表第一册第一课第一道题
221即代表第二册第二课第一道题
311即代表第三册第一课第一道题
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111.        In some schools there are many computer classrooms. For example, students can do their mathematic exercises with a computer. The computer writes questions on the screens in front of the students, and the students answer on their keyboards.        The computer knows Mary. This is their first lesson. The computer can give Mary the right lesson for her, neither too fast, nor too slow. And the computer can do this with many other students at the same time.
112.        Students can also learn a foreign language with a computer. The computer gives lessons in pronunciation, grammar and the correct usage of words and phrases. Computers are very helpful and most students like their new computer teachers.
111.        有些学校中设有很多计算机教室。例如:学生可以用计算机来做数学练习。计算机在学生面前写出问题,学生在键盘上回答问题。计算机认识玛丽,她们是第一次上课。计算机恰如其分地给玛丽上课,既不太快,也不太慢。计算机还能同时给许多其他学生上课。
112.        学生也能通过计算机学一门外语,计算机能上语音课、语法课,也能教词汇与词组的正确用法。计算机非常有用,大多数学生喜欢他们新的计算机教师。
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121.        what is the sky? How high is it? Where is it? What lies above the sky? I am sure that you may have asked questions like these. They are very difficult to answer, aren’t they? What is the sky? Perhaps we can answer some of these questions now. Sky is vast space. It is all around the world. In the sky there is the sun, the moon, and all the stars.
122.        Scientists have always wanted to know more about space. They use telescopes to obtain information. But this is not enough. So they want to send space ship to some of the other worlds in space. The moon is the nearest heavenly body to the earth. An airplane cannot fly to the moon, because the air only reaches a height of 240 kilometres. Then there is no air. But a rocket can fly even when there is no air.
123.        A rocket is made of metal. There is a hot gas inside it. When it rushes out of the end of the rocket, the rocket is pushed up into the air. Rockets can fly far out into space. Rockets have already taken men to the moon. One day they may be able to go anywhere in space.
121.        天空是什么?它有多高?它在什么地方?天空的的上面是什么?我相信你们也许问过这些问题,这些问题很难回答,是吧?天空是什么?或许现在我们能回答其中一些问题,天空是广阔无垠的空间。天空在什么地方?在这个世界的周围。天空中有太阳、月亮和无数的星星。
122.        科学家一直想多了解一些有关太空的奥秘。他们利用望远镜获得太空的知识,但这并不够,所以他们想把宇宙飞船送到太空中其它的一些星球上去。月球是离地球最近的天体。飞机飞不到月球,因为空气只能到达240公里的高度,再往上就没有空气了,但是火箭恰可在没有空气的情况下飞行。
123.        火箭由金属制成,火箭的内部是炽热的气体,当炽热的气体从火箭尾部喷出来时,火箭就被推向空中。火箭能飞入宇宙空间很远的地方,火箭已经把人送上了月球,将来有一天,它会飞向宇宙空间的任何地方。
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131.        You’ll see a new doctor at a hospital near Shanghai if you go there. He’s very clever - but he never speaks and he didn’t go to medical college. He can work 24 hours a day and never tire. He’s only one metre tall and has a face like a TV screen. He has no arms or legs but lots of buttons and switches. He is Dr Robot.
132.        Doctors often need to ask their patients about their health in the past. But busy doctors can only spend a few minutes with each patient. The robot doctor, however, can ask a patient questions for an hour if necessary. So when the human doctor meets his patient, he already has a lot of helpful information.
133.        Dr Robot is really quite human. If you answer No to the question “ Is your father alive?”, Dr Robot will reply “I’m sorry to hear that” . There are plans for better robot doctors. But they will never take the place of human doctors. They can only help doctors to give their patients better service.
131.        如果你到上海附近的一家医院去,就能看到一位新医生。他非常聪明,但从来不说话,也不曾进过医科学院,他一天能工作二十四小时,而决不会感到疲劳。他身高只有一米,面孔像电视机的屏幕,他没有胳膊,也没有腿,却有许多按钮和开关,他就是机器人医生。
132.        医生经常需要询问病人过去的健康情况,但忙碌的医生对每个病人只能问上几分钟,然而,机器人医生必要时可花上一小时询问病人的情况,因此,当医生接待病人时,他已经有了许多关于病人情况的有用资料。
133.        机器人医生,颇有人的感情。如果机器人医生问你“你的父亲还活着吗?”而你回答“不”时,机器人医生就回答道“听了你的回答我感到难过”。 已经制定了设计更先进的机器人医生的计划。但是机器人医生永远代替不了医生。机器人医生只能帮助医生提高对病人的服务质量。
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141.        Thomas Edison wore many caps during his life. First he was just a poor working boy. He wore work caps of many kinds. Later in life he became a famous and great inventor. Then he wore the caps of many famous universities and colleges. But his most important cap was his thinking cap.
142.        When he was a young boy, Edison’s thinking cap saved his mother’s life. One night, she suddenly fell ill. A doctor was called in. He had to operate on her at once, but there was not enough light in the room. Edison quickly put on his thinking cap. He got all the oil lights in the house and put them on a long table. Then he set up a big mirror behind them. At once the room became quite light. The doctor could operate, and his mother was saved.
143.        Edison was thinking man. Yet, he was a working man and a doing man, too. He was good with his hands and his head. Edison’s famous inventions have changed the world greatly. Today many great trains run on electricity. Electricity light the streets of towns and villages. Science uses it every day.
144.        Shining lights, records, moving pictures and ringing telephones are very common now. Edison’s thinking cap made them. Usually, caps keep the head warm. But thinking caps keep the world warm.
141.        托马斯•爱迪生一生中戴过许多帽子。起初,他仅仅是一个穷童工,他戴过多种工作帽。后来,他成了一位有名和伟大的发明家。于是他又戴上许多著名大学和学院的帽子。但是他的最重要的帽子是动脑筋帽子。
142.        当他还在童年时,他的动脑筋帽子就曾挽救过他母亲的生命。一天晚上,母亲忽然患病了,请来了医生。他需立即为病人开刀,但房间里光线不够。爱迪生立即戴上他的动脑筋帽子。他把家里所有的油灯都收集来,放在一张长桌上。然而把一面大镜子放在灯的后面。房间立即亮多了。医生能够动手术,母亲也得救了。
143.        爱迪生是个肯动脑筋的人。但是他同时还是个爱劳动的人和实干家。他心灵手巧。爱迪生著名的发明使世界大大改观。今天很多大型火车由电驱动。城乡的街道用电照明。科学天天用电。
144.        明亮的电灯、唱片、电影、叮铃响的电话,现在已很普遍了。这些都是爱迪生动脑筋的产物。普通的帽子能使头部感到温暖,但是爱迪生的动脑筋帽子却使世界感到温暖。
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151.        Here are some ideas for the future of transport in our cities, for example, the idea of the “carveyor”. This is a system of conveyor belts in the streets. There are three belts side by side. The first is very slow, the second travels at about ten miles per hour (m.p.h.) and the third goes at fifteen m.p.h. and has small cars on it.
152.        To get on the carveyor, you just get on the slower belt, walk along it and change to the second belt. Then you walk along that one and get on the “fast” belt and sit in one of the cars. These belts never stop. In cities with carveyors we are not going to want cars or buses.
153.        Then there is another idea: there are electronic tracks in the streets all round the city. Electric cars run on these tracks. All the tracks and all the cars are controlled by a central computer. If, for example, an engineer wants to go from a railway station to a large hotel, he goes out of the station and gets into one of these cars outside. He presses the button for his hotel. A signal is sent from the car to the central computer and the computer finds the route. Then the car takes its traveler to the hotel at about forty miles per hour. Easy, isn’t it?        These are two wonderful ideas for the future. We must do something; we want to live in quiet and clean cities.
151.        下面是关于我们城市未来运输的一些设想,例如车辆传送带的事。这是一种街道上用的传送带系统,有三条并排的传送带,第一条传送带很慢,第二条传送带每小时运行约十英里。第三条传送带每小时运行约15英里,上面还有一些小型汽车。
152.        如果你要乘坐车辆传送带,只要蹬上较慢的传送带,沿着传送带走几步,再换乘第二条传送带,再沿着第二条传送带走几步,然后蹬上快速传送带,坐入一辆汽车,这些传送带不停地运行,城市里有了这些车辆传送带,我们就不需要汽车或公共汽车了。
153.        还有另一种设想,全城各处的街道上设有电子控制的行车路线,电动汽车在这些路线上行驶,所有的行车路线和所有的汽车均由一架中心计算机控制,例如:一位工程师想从火车站去一家大旅馆,他走出车站,坐上车站外面的一辆这样的电动汽车,按一下开往旅馆的电钮,一个信号从汽车送到中心计算机,计算机便找出行驶路线。然后电动汽车便以每小时四十英里的速度将这位旅客送往旅馆,可方便了,是吗?这是对未来运输的两点美妙的设想,我们一定得努力。我们想住在安静和清洁的城市里。
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161.        Have you ever been to the sea? It has always been a world of adventure for brave people.        In the early days of sailing, many sailors left home to cross wide oceans. Often these early explorers were looking for new people to trade with.        Today, explorers are still pushing their way through tons of ice in the far North. They are exploring some of the world’s last unknown waters.
162.        Human beings have always loved the plants and animals that live in the sea. To look at sea life up close, people have had to design and produce all kinds of special equipment. Nowadays face masks, air tanks and diving suits are widely used in underwater exploration. With them, men can dive into deep water and be at home with the fish.
163.        Once all deep-sea divers were men. But now, lots of women have become divers, too. In 1970, five girls stayed for two weeks in an undersea lab.
164.        People cannot live under the water without special equipment. Yet people everywhere want to get to know the sea. They want to be in it and to be on it. They want to cross it. They want to use it. They want to explore it.
161.        你曾经去过海洋吗?它一直是世界上勇敢人冒险的地方。早期的航行中,许多海员离开家横穿海洋,这些早期的探索者常常寻找新的民族,与他们进行交易。今天,探索者们仍然穿过大量的冰块来到遥远的北极,他们探索世界上最后一些尚未了解的水域。
162.        人类一直喜欢生活在海洋中的植物和动物。为了更仔细的观察海洋,人们不得不设计和生产许多种特殊的设备,如今面具、氧气瓶和潜水服已广泛地应用于海底探索,有了它们,人们可以潜入深水并自由自在地和鱼儿打交道。
163.        以前所有的深海潜水者都是男的,但是现在许多妇女们也已成为潜水员,在1970年5个女孩在海底试验室呆了两个星期。
164.        如果没有特殊的设备,人们不能生活在水下,但是各地的人们想要了解海洋,他们想要住在水下或水上,他们想要横越它、利用它、探索它。
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171.        Many large cities are anything but beautiful. Streets are littered with trash. In this trash, however, there is still something that can be useful. If people want to solve the problem of waste, there is no time to be lost. They must work out ways of making use of good things which are just thrown away as waste.
172.        When a car gets too old, it may not run any more. But the metal that the car was made of is still good. It can be put to use again. When a bottle is empty, it goes out in the trash. But bottle glass can be ground into sand and used to pave streets. First you have to fish out all the glass and metal. Then garbage from food can be changed into fertilizer.
173.        Garbage can also be a good source for making building blocks, which are then covered with concrete. Now, more and more machines are designed for this purpose. Some day, people will watch films in a magnificent cinema which has been built out of garbage. Future buildings, roads, and cities may be made from garbage. But so far, building beautiful cities out of garbage is only a dream.
171.        许多大城市根本谈不上美丽,街上乱扔着垃圾,但是,垃圾中仍然有一些有用的东西。如果人们想要解决垃圾处理问题,那已经是刻不容缓的了。他们必须研究出一些方法来利用那些作为废物扔掉的有用的垃圾。
172.        当一辆汽车破旧了,它也许就不能行驶,但制成汽车的金属仍然有用,还可以再次使用。一个瓶子用空以后就被扔入垃圾堆,可是瓶子的玻璃可以磨成沙子用来铺路。你首先必须把所有玻璃和金属捡出来,然后食物下脚料可以变成肥料。
173.            垃圾可以是制造建筑砖块的好原料,在砖块外面再敷上混凝土,目前,用于这种目的的机器越来越多,有朝一日,人们将会坐在用垃圾提炼建造的豪华的电影院里看电影。未来的建筑物、道路和城市就可能用废弃物提炼建造。但到目前为止,用垃圾建造美丽的城市还只是一个理想。
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181.        Can you imagine traveling to work in a one-man submarine? Some scientists believe that some day one-man submarines will be as numerous as automobiles are today. A famous French diver says, “One day soon, men will walk on the ocean floor as they do on the street.”  Perhaps during your lifetime people will travel, work, and live in the sea.
182.        If human beings want to live in the ocean, many human problems will need to be studied first. Some of these problems, similar to those of living in outer space, are pressure, lack of oxygen and weightlessness. Many questions remain unanswered.
183.         For example, can our body adjust itself to underwater surroundings? What will happen to our muscles if we live in the water very long? Scientists are searching for answers.
184.        Perhaps in the future man will live in the sea or on the sea, away from the crowded and noisy cities on land. The sea has plenty of space, not only for floating communities and parks, but also for storing supplies and for underwater travel.
185.        Some scientists believe that ocean living will benefit man in more than physical ways. In the freedom and beauty of the deep sea, man may find new sources of joy.
181.        你能否想象乘着单人潜艇去上班吗?某些科学家相信有朝一日单人潜艇将会象今天的汽车一样多。法国一位著名的潜水家说:“不久的将来,人们将会在海底行走,就像在大街上行走一样。”也许在你们这一代人们将会在海底旅行、工作和生活。
182.        如果人类想要在海洋里生活,首先必须研究许多有关人类的问题,其中有一些问题,就像在外层空间生活时会遇到的情况一样,是压力、缺氧和失重。许多问题还没得到解答。
183.        例如:我们的身体是否能自我适应水下环境?如果我们长期生活在水下,我们的肌肉将会怎么样?科学家们正在寻求这些问题的解答。
184.        或许将来人们将会离开陆地上那些拥挤和嘈杂的城市,而生活在海下或海上。海洋十分辽阔,不仅可供建制海上居民点和公园,还可供贮存物资和进行海底旅行之用。
185.        有些科学家认为海洋生活不仅在物质方面有益于人类,而且在自由而美丽的深海里人们可以发现新的乐趣。
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191.        The best high jumper in the world can lift himself only a few feet above the earth. With a balloon or a high-flying jet aircraft he can reach a height of several miles. Only the rocket will enable him to overcome the gravity of the earth and to reach the vast emptiness of space.
192.        The pull of gravity depends upon size, or more accurately, upon mass. This is the amount of material in an object. The closer an object is to earth, the greater is the earth’s pull on it. As it gets away from the earth, the strength of the pull weakens.
193.        In order to get right away from the earth, rocket will have to fly into space at a speed of seven miles per second. This is called the earth’s escape velocity.
194.        The launching of rockets at this speed demands great power, but there is an easy way to do this. We start with a rocket which need not escape completely from the earth. On top of it we place another smaller one and even a third. these can be fired in turn as the first one reaches the end of its flight and falls to earth.
195.         As the rocket gets farther into space, the earth’s atmosphere is left behind, and there is less resistance. The earth’s gravity, too, grows weaker and in this way a high speed can be built up. At 25,000 miles per hour our rocket will escape from the earth’s pull and travel wherever it is steered.
191.        世界上最好的跳高运动员,只能跳离地球几英尺,利用气体或高空喷气式飞机他可以达到几英里的高度。只有火箭才能使他克服地球引力,到达广阔无垠的空间。
192.        地球引力的大小,取决于物体的大小,或者更确切地说,取决于物体的质量,也就是物体中物质的量。一切物体离地球越近,地球对它的引力就越大。当物体离开地球时,这种引力的强度将减弱。
193.        为了离开地球,火箭必须以每秒7英里的速度飞向空间。这种速度就叫做逃逸速度。
194.        用这种速度将火箭发射出去需要很大的动力。但有一种很容易的火箭发射方法,我们先利用一支无需完全脱离地球的火箭,在这支火箭的顶端,装上另外一支以至第三支较小的火箭,当第一支火箭飞完它的路程落向地面时,第二、第三支火箭依次点火。
195.        随着火箭越来越远的进入空间,地球的大气被抛在后面,于是阻力也随之减小,地球的引力也越来越弱,这样一来,就可产生高速度。在每小时25000英里的速度下,我们的火箭就会逃逸地球的引力,飞向任何指定的目的地。
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1101.        Clean air is important to good health. If the air contains impurities, they may be absorbed by our bodies and make us ill. We need clean air, but unfortunately, air pollution is generally present, especially in cities.
1102.        Our cities have many factories, which we need to make food products, clothing and many other things. Every year these factories pour millions upon millions of tons of smoke and soot into the air. Power plants that burn coal add greatly to air pollution.
1103.        Things made in factories wear out after a while and are thrown away as trash. We burn a lot of trash. More smoke and soot. And then there are the cars made in factories. Once they are out on the street, the cars will take in air and replace it with poison gases. Again, more smoke and soot.
1104.        We must take measures to control pollution. No area in the world is completely free of air pollution. Now, more and more people are realizing the importance of clean air. Schools are now teaching about the pollution problem. Industries are beginning to help clean up. They are installing special equipment to clean up their smoke.
1105.        Scientists and inventors are trying to develop cleaner engines for cars and trains. Someday we may drive cars that are run by electricity. There is a new kind of paper that will dissolve in water and does not need to be burned. A new kind of glass bottle that will melt in sunlight and disappear is being developed in some countries.        The day should come when people can breathe clean air in cities.
1101.        新鲜的空气对于健康是最重要的,如果空中含有杂质就会被我们的身体吸收而致病,我们需要新鲜的空气,但是,不幸的是,空气污染普遍存在,尤其在城市里更是如此。
1102.        我们的城市有许多工厂,我们需要工厂来生产食品、衣服和其它物品,这些工厂每年把亿万吨的烟尘排入空气中,烧煤的发电厂,大大地加重了空气的污染程度。
1103.        经过一段时间,工厂中生产出来的东西用坏了,当做垃圾扔掉了,我们烧掉大量的垃圾,产生更多的烟尘,还有工厂里生产的汽车,一旦出厂开到大街上就会吸进空气,排出有毒气体,于是又产生更多的烟尘。
1104.        我们必须采取措施来制止空气污染,世界上没有哪个地区是完全没有空气污染的。现在越来越多的人正在意识到清洁空气的重要性,学校中目前在讲授有关空气污染的问题,工业部门正在开始协助净化空气,安装专用设备,清除烟尘。
1105.        科学家和发明家正在努力研制汽车和火车用的较为清洁的发动机,有朝一日我们可能会驾驶电动小汽车,有一种新型纸张,能溶于水,因而不需要燃烧,一些国家正在研制一种新型的能在阳光下溶解并消失的玻璃瓶。人们在城市里能呼吸到新鲜空气的日子定会来到。
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1111.        Generally, satellite relay stations receive electromagnetic waves from one part of the Earth and then transmit them to another part of the Earth. There are also some satellite relay stations that do a different kind of work. They relay radio waves to the Earth. But they receive the waves that they pass along not from the Earth, but from outer space.
1112.        In 1932, an American scientist reported an unexpected and astonishing discovery. He found that the specially designed antenna of his very sensitive radio receiver was picking up radio waves from outside the Earth. In fact the waves seemed to come from outside the solar system.
1113.        No one had expected such a thing.This was a surprise. Just where in space do these radio waves come from? What produces them, out there? Scientists called radio-astronomers are busy trying to find out.
1114.        To collect there radio waves from outer space giant dish-shaped antennas is one of effective ways . These antennas collect radio waves much as a telescope collects light waves. So they are called radio telescopes. Radio waves from space are now used to explore the Universe, much as light waves are so used.
1115.        Do any of these radio waves sweeping through space to the Earth contain a message? Is there, somewhere out in space, intelligent life trying to speak to us? Perhaps you will get answers to these exciting questions in the near future.
1111.        卫星中继站通常从地球的一个地区接收无线电波,然后再把它们送到另一个地区去,有些卫星中继站却担负者另一种任务,它们把无线电波传送到地球上,但它们接收的无线电波不是来自地球,而是来自外层空间。
1112.        1932年一位美国科学家报告了一个出人意料的惊人发现,他那台有专门设计的天线,灵敏度很高的无线电接收机,收到了来自地球以外的无线电波,事实上这些电波看来是来自太阳系的外面。
1113.        没有人想到过有这样的事情,这真是一件意想不到的事,究竟这些无线电波来自太空的什么地方呢?在外层空间又是什么东西产生这些电波?称为射电天文学家的科学家正忙于寻找答案。
1114.        为了收集这些来自外层空间的无线电波,巨大的抛物面天线是有效方法之一,这种天线收集无线电波就像望远镜收集光波一样,因此它们被叫做射电望远镜。目前,来自太空的无线电波就像光波一样,被用来收索宇宙的奥秘。
1115.        在飞越空间到达地球的这些无线电波中,是否可能有一些电波包含着某一种信息,在外层空间的某个地方会不会存在着想要跟我们说话的智慧的生物呢?或许在最近的将来,你会为这些激动人心的问题找到解答。
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1121.        A new type of aeroplane engine was invented in 1945. It was much lighter and more powerful than earlier engines, and enabled war planes to fly faster and higher than ever. This type of engine was called the jet engine because it blows a large jet of hot air backwards at high speed.
1122.        The first airliner to use the new jet engines was built in Britain and it began carrying passengers in 1952. It had two jet engines and flew much higher than petrol-engined airliners.
1123.        At this height, the air is thinner and very cold, and so the aeroplane can cut through the air more easily. There are no clouds to disturb the flight of the airliner, and rain and thunderstorms are far below it. The sky above is a brilliant blue.
1124.        Because the air is so cold and thin, the cabin has to be air-conditioned and has to be at normal pressure so that the passengers may eat, read and sleep in comfort. Nowaday, all long distance airliners have jet engines. The modern jet airliners are very big and carry as many as 200 passengers. Some airliners are even bigger; they can carry 350 passengers on two different floors. In this way, air travel can be made much cheaper.
1125.        Tomorrow’s airliners will be flying at over twice the speed of today’s airliners. In fact, a new-type airliner has already reached this enormous speed. It can carry passengers in safety and comfort far up in the blue sky.
1121.        1945年发明了一种新型的飞机发动机,它比早期的发动机要轻的多,功率也要大的多,还能使军用飞机比以往任何时候飞的更高、更快,这种发动机叫做喷气发动机。因为它以很高的速度向后喷出一股热气流。
1122.        采用这种新式喷气发动机的第一架客机是在英国造的,并在1952年开始运载旅客。这架客机有两台喷气发动机,飞的比用汽油发动机的客机要高的多.
1123.        在这一高度空气较为稀薄,而且温度很底,因而飞机可较为容易地穿过空气飞行,同时,没有云彩干扰客机的飞行。雨和雷电都在比客机底的多的地方发生,客机上空的天空则是一片耀眼的湛蓝色。
1124.        由于空气又冷又稀薄,客舱必须进行空气调节,并保持正常压力,以使旅客能舒适的进食、阅读和安睡。当前,所有的远程客机都采用喷气发动机,现代的喷气式客机很大,能运载的旅客多达200名,有些客机还要大,分为两层,能运载350名乘客,这样乘飞机旅行就可能便宜的多。
1125.        明天的客机将以相当于今天的客机两倍多的速度飞行,实际上一种新型的客机已经达到了这种高速度,它能够既安全又舒适地在高高的蓝天上运载旅客。
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211.        Not long ago, an aeroplane was flying over America. There was a television camera crew on board. Suddenly, out in the night sky, a bright sphere came into view. Everyone on board saw it and everyone thought,: "UFO"---Unidentified Flying Object .The camera crew went into action and started filming.
212.        That week people all over the world saw the film of this mysterious light on their television screens. What was it? Was it a spaceship full of visitors from another planet? The captain of the aeroplane and the film crew believed it was. Other observers had many different explanations. Some said it was Venus. Others said it was just a trick of light.
213.        However, most scientists now believe that what these people saw was almost certainly the planet Venus. At that time of year it is very bright and easy to see. And from a moving aeroplane it can appear to be moving fast. So far there is no proof that UFOs or spaceships from other planets do exist.
214.        These years investigators of UFOs have investigated thousands of sightings--or occasions when people said they saw a UFO. Eighty per cent of these turned out to have a simple explanation.
215.        However, it is a good idea to keep an open mind. Scientists in some countries are trying to persuade their governments to support them study UFOs. And they are planning to co-operate internationally on researching and investigating sightings of UFOs. After all, it is quite possible that there is life out there in the universe. And if something is alive,  it is quite possible that it will come to visit us..
211.        不久以前,有一架飞机在美国上空飞过。机上有个电视摄制组。突然,机外的夜空中有个发光的圆球映入眼帘。机内的人都目睹这一景象,大家都认为这就是不明飞行物。摄制组人员立即行动起来,进行拍摄。
212.        在那一周内,全世界的人都在电视屏幕上看到这一神秘发光体的镜头。这究竟是什么东西呢?是来自其它星球的满载旅客的宇宙飞船吗?机长和摄制组人员认为是的。另一些目击者则众说纷纭,有些人说这是金星,另一些人认为这不过是光造成的幻觉而已。
213.        然而,大多数科学家现在都认为这些人所看到的几乎肯定是金星。在每年的这个时侯,金星正好十分明亮,容易看到。而且从飞行着的飞机上看去,金星可能像在快速运行。究竟有没有不明飞行物或来自其它行星的宇宙飞船,到目前为止尚无法证实。
214.        这些年来,不明飞行物的研究者对成千上万起人们自称亲眼目睹的事例进行了调查。结果是对其中百分之八十都能作简单的解释。
215.    不过,对这个问题最好是不抱偏见。有些国家的科学家们正在努力劝说各自的政府支持他们的  研究。他们计划在研究和调查不明飞行物的行踪方面进行国际合作。总之,在外层空间很可能存在着生物。而如果真有某种生物存在的话,那就完全有可能来访问我们。
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221.        An American scientists built an interesting new apparatus which can produce a very strong beam of light. This new light was named "laser". The principle of the laser is that the atoms of a crystal like the ruby crystal can be excited by strong light and can then store this light, amplify it and emit an immensely powerful beam.
222.        This light is particularly powerful because it travels in coherent waves, that is, waves which are all the same length and which move in step. For this reason, too, this light consists of only one colour, and not of many colours like sunlight.
223.        Light of this strength can be very useful and has already found many different applications in science. One important use of lasers is to measure distances. The astronauts on one Apollo mission set up a reflector on the moon to "catch" laser beams projected from the earth and to return them to our planet.
224.        Scientists can calculate the precise distance, when they measure the time the beam takes to go to the moon and come back. Another use of lasers is to measure time. The fact that laser beams are so coherent means that their pulses can be used to divide a single second into fantastically small parts. In fact, pulses of laser light that last only one pico-second have already been produced.
225.        Laser beams can also be used in communications. A laser beam travelling through an enclosed tube can carry as much information as 80 million TV channels! Laser, like moving-picture and TV before it, will probably change many aspects of our lives before the end of the twentieth century.
221.        有一位美国科学家制成了一种有趣的新型仪器,它能够产生很强的光束,这种新的光源被命名为“激光”。激光的原理是:有些晶体(如红宝石)的原子可以受强光激发,然后把这种光储存起来,加以放大,并发射出功率极为强大的光束。
222.        这种光束的功率之所以特别强大是因为它是以“相干波”的形式传输的。所谓相干波是所有的波长均相同,而且同步,也由于这一原因,这种光只有一种颜色,而不像太阳光那样有许多颜色。
223.        这种高强度的光非常有用,并已在科学上有多种不同的用途。激光的一个重要用途是测距。有一次执行阿波罗飞行任务的宇航员曾经在月球上安装了一个反射器,用来“捕捉”从地球发射去的激光束,并把他们反射到地球上来。
224.        当科学家测量激光束在地球与月球之间往返一次的时间,科学家们能计算出地球与月球之间的精确距离。激光的另一用途是测时。激光束相干性极好的意义在于激光的脉冲可以用来把一秒钟分割为无数极小的瞬间。事实上人们现在已能产生仅仅持续一微微秒(即10-12秒)的激光脉冲。
225.        激光束也可用于通讯。在一个封闭管道中传输的激光束能传送多达八千万个电视频道的信息。激光,和在它以前的电影、电视机一样,在本世纪结束之前大概会使我们生活的许多方面发生变化。
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231.        From time to time we have to do rather tricky jobs and feel that one of our fingers is getting in the way. We say that we are “all thumbs”, meaning that our fingers seem to be too clumsy for the work. It is possible that on these occasions a specially designed artificial limb would be more efficient.
232.        In many countries scientists are studying ways of increasing the power of the human limb, or rather of its muscles. Known as a “man-amplifier”, a machine under development at an American aeronautical laboratory consists of a framework or suit which the operator wears.
233.         Every movement he makes is repeated by the steel framework he is wearing, but the power which moves the parts of the frame comes from hydraulic motors. If the operator bends down to pick something up, the machine repeats his movement, lifting as heavy a weight as 450 kilograms in each hand.
234.        Another machine with feet and legs is being made, which will enable its user to walk across the countryside very quickly as the stride of this walking machine is much greater than an ordinary man’s. Besides military uses, such devices will obviously be useful to astronauts working on the moon.
235.         Just as the operations of a distant unmanned spacecraft circling the moon can be controlled by radio signals, so such devices, properly designed, can be radio-controlled. An astronaut exploring an unknown planet can do part of his exploration without leaving his spacecraft. He can send out a robot which will work on the unknown planet, putting up a permanent observation station or travelling far and wide to collecting rocks and minerals.
231.        我们常常需要干些复杂地工作,这时往往会觉得某个手指碍事。我们常说自己“笨手笨脚”,意思是说我们的手指太笨拙,干不了某些工作。在这种情况下,采用一种特别设计的人工肢体可能会有效一些。
232.        在许多国家里科学家正在研究增加四肢能力,更确切地说,是增加四肢肌肉力量的方法。美国一所航空实验室正在研制一台机器,叫做“人力放大器”。这台机器由一个供操作人员套的框架结构或称操作服构成。
233.        操作人员所套着的钢铁框架能重复他的一举一动,不过驱动框架各部件的动力是由液压发动机供给的。 假如操作人员弯腰拾东西,那机器就重复这一动作,每只手提起重达450公斤的重物。
234.        另外一台正在制造中的机器,有脚有腿,它能帮助使用者迅速穿越乡村田野,因为这类步行机的步子比一般人的大得多。除了军事用途外,这种机器显然对在月球上工作的宇航员很有用处。
235.        正如远在太空绕月球飞行的无人驾驶宇宙飞船可用无线电信号操纵一样,这种专门设计的装置,也可以用无线电操纵。探索陌生行星的宇航员不用离开飞船就能进行部分考察工作,他可以派出机器人在这颗陌生的行星上工作,建立永久性观察站,或到四面八方去走动以收集岩石和矿物。
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241.        There is a science-fiction story in which beings from another planet conquer the earth easily because they have a machine to turn off all the electricity. Well, what would be the effect of such a machine? A century ago, nobody but a few scientists would have observed any difference; most people would simply have continued their lives.
242.        Nowday, even the farthest corners of the world are being conquered by electricity, at least by the TV.
243.    Most of the trouble of a life without electricity, however, would come to the highly industrialized nations. Many, if not all, of our industries would cease production; all wheels would stop because the motors that power the machines would fail. The world’s transport systems would fall apart without a supply of electricity.
244.         Electric trains and trams obviously depend on electric current, but motor vehicles could not be operated, either; they could neither be started (except with a hand-crank)nor would there be any ignition. For the same reason, aeroplanes could not fly.
245.         Probably the worst effect would be felt on the world’s communication systems. The telephone, radio, television and radar would become inventions of strictly theoretical interest. The world’s leaders would hold meetings and establish committees to discuss the situation and inform the people; but how would people ever learrn the results of these discussions, with even the printing presses out of service? At the same time, scientists would try to find a way to turn the electricity on again or perhaps to discover a substance that would replace it.
241.        有一篇科学幻想故事,说到从一个行星上来的生物轻而易举地征服了地球,因为他们有一种机器能切断所有的电源。那么,这样一台机器会造成什么后果呢?若是在一个世纪以前,除了少数科学家以外,大概不会有人注意到有什么两样,大多数人会照样生活下去。
242.        在当代,即使是地球上最偏僻的角落也离不开电,至少离不开电视机。
243.        然而,如果没有电,高度工业化的国家所遇到的困难最多。许多(纵使不是全部)工业都要停止生产,所有机轮部分将停止转动,因为供给机器能量的电动机将停止工作。全世界的运输系统也将因没有电力供应而陷于瘫痪。
244.        电气火车和电车固然要依靠电流,但有发动机的车辆也不能开动:它们既不能发动(除非用摇手柄)也不能点火。由于同样道理,飞机也不能飞行。
245.        受影响最严重的也许是全世界的通讯系统。电话,收音机,电视,雷达都只能变成纸上谈兵的发明。世界各国的首脑可能会召开会议,成立各种委员会,来讨论这种形势,并向人民发布消息。但是如果连印刷机也停止工作了,人民将如何获悉这些讨论的结果呢?同时,科学家们将致力于寻求一种把电流重新接通的方法,或是设法发现一种物质来代替电。
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251.        Some estimations are too pessimistic, for example, some scientists estimate that at the present rate of use, the world’s known oil deposits could run out in from 10 to 15 years. Even taking into account possible new discoveries of oil deposits, there may be little or no oil left by the end of this century.
252.        We need not depend too much on coal or oil for power if we can tap new energy sources. In the long run, there should be no such thing as an energy shortage, because the entire universe consists of energy. Wherever there is matter, there is energy, and all changes of matter involve changes of energy.
253.        Making use of the heat in the centre of the earth, for example, is one of man’s endeavours to cope with the energy problem. As you know, the centre of the earth is so hot that all the rock there is liquid. The rock that forms the land and the floor of the sea is a cool crust.
254.        This crust is about twenty-five miles thick, and underneath is a thick layer of hot rock, which extends about half way to the centre of the earth. The liquid centre of the earth is thought to have temperatures around 3,700.C.
255.        If we drill holes in the crust down to the hot rock below, it would be possible to send water down the holes. The rock would heat the water and turn it into hot steam. The steam would then be forced back up to the surface by the pressure, and could be used to drive turbines to make electricity.
256.        This would only be an artificial extension of something that happens naturally in the geysers that are found in Iceland and other regions of the world. It is conceivable that energy from within the earth will be extensively used in the future. There are many other energy sources in store. The problems are connected with harnessing the energy at a reasonable cost so that people in the world can benefit from it.
251.        有些估计过于悲观,例如,某些科学家估计,按目前使用石油的速度,全世界已探明的石油储量可能在10--15年内消耗殆尽。即使把可能发现的新油田考虑进去,到本世纪末石油也可能全部用尽或所剩无几。这个估计过于悲观了。
252.        如果我们能开发出新的能源,我们就不必过分依赖煤和石油来取得动力了。从长远观点来看,不应该出现能源短缺这样的问题。因为整个宇宙都是由能量组成的。哪儿有物质,哪儿就有能量。物质的一切变化都包含着能量的变化。
253.        例如,利用地心的热量,就是人类解决能源问题的一种努力。你们知道,地心的温度极高,以至那儿的岩石均呈液态。构成陆地和海底的岩石是一层冷的外壳。
254.        这层外壳约有25英里厚,以下是厚厚的一层炽热的岩石,深达离地心一半的地方。据认为液态地心的温度是3700度左右。
255.        如果我们在地壳上钻孔,钻到下面炽热的岩层,那么就可以从孔内把水往下注。岩石会使水变热,化为蒸汽。蒸汽受到压力被压回地面,于是就可以用它来驱动涡轮机发电。
256.        这只不过是把热喷泉里发生的自然现象加以人工发展而已。这种热喷泉在冰岛和世界的其他地区也存在着。可以相信,地心的能量将来会得到广泛的利用。还有许多种其他能源尚未开发。问题在于要使利用能源的成本不致太高,以便人类能从中得益。
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261.        The invention of computers has been one of the greatest advances in modern technology. They are already widely used in industry and in universities, and the time has come when ordinary people can use them as well. Computers are capable of doing extremely complicated work in all branches of learning.
262.        They can solve the most complex mathematical problems or put thousands of unrelated facts in order. Because they work accurately and at high speeds, they save research workers years of hard work. This whole process by which machines can be used to work for us has been called automation.
263.        Some time ago an expert on automation pointed out that it was a mistake to believe that these machines could “think”. There is no possibility that human beings will be “controlled by machines”. As computers need detailed instructions from human beings in order to be able to operate, they can never “rule the world” by making decisions of their own
264.        Computers could be connected with a national network and be used like movable phone. For instance, people going on holiday could be informed about weather conditions; car drivers could be given alternative routes when there are traffic jams.
265.        It will also be possible to make tiny translating machines. This will enable people who do not share a common language to talk to each other without much difficulty or to read foreign publications. In hospitals where computers are used, diagnosis becomes quicker and more accurate. Computers can even write out prescriptions. Computers are the most efficient assistants man has ever had and there seems to be no limit to the way in which they can be used to improve our lives.
261.        现代技术最大的成就之一就是计算机的发明。计算机已在工业上和大学内得到了广泛的应用,普通人也能使用计算机的日子已经到来了。计算机能在所有的学术领域进行极其复杂的工作。
262.        它们能解非常复杂的数学问题,或者把成千上万件毫不相关的资料整理的井井有条。由于计算机能精确而高速地工作,这就节省研究人员成年累月的艰苦劳动,用机器来为人们工作的这一整个过程,就叫做自动化。
263.        不久以前,一位自动化专家指出,认为这一类机器具有“思维”能力,这种想法是错误的。人类决不会“受机器操纵”。计算机需要人为它提供详尽的指令才能操作,因而它决不可能自作主张地来“统治世界”。
264.        计算机可以与全国性网络连接,像移动电话一样使用。比如,假日外出旅游的人们可以向它了解天气情况;汽车驾驶员在交通堵塞时可以从它知道其它行车路线。
265.        还将有可能造出小型的翻译机器,这就使得操不同语言的人们可以不很困难地互相交谈,或阅读各种外文出版物。在使用计算机的医院里,病情诊断又快又正确,计算机甚至还会开处方。
计算机是人类曾经有过的效率最高的助手,用它们来改善人们生活的前景看来是无限广阔的。
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271.        Steam engines were the first to be fitted on aeroplanes,but they were too heavy to be of any use. One such flying machine, made in 1884,consisted of several wings one above the other and was driven by a steam engine. It is said to have risen for a moment off the ground. Another rose, but fell and was damaged.
272.        No real success was obtained until the invention of the petrol engine, which is light and powerful enough to be fitted to an aeroplane.
273.        At the beginning of this century, two poorly educated young men named Wilbur and Orville Wright made a lot of experiments. They took innense trouble to study the art of flying in gliders so as to be competent in flying their aero-plane. The first flying machine of the Wrights’, made of pieces of wood and cloth, looked too fragile to fly.
274.         But in the aeroplane Orville made the first short flight and came down safely. The experiment was repeated three times on the same day. The longest of these flights covered a distance of 852 feet and lasted 59 seconds. The aeroplane was equipped with an engine developing only sixteen horse-power but it the reached a speed of 35 miles an hour.
275.        The two brothers continued their experiments on flying in France and astonished all who were watching. By 1908, even the most doubtful of scientists was convinced that a practical flying machine was a reality.
276.        The Wright brothers laid the foundation of modern flying. They became world-famous, but they never lost their modesty when honours were showered upon them. They paid little attention to the medals they received from scientific societies. They refused to make public speeches many times.
271.        蒸汽发动机是飞机上首先安装的发动机,但这种发动机太笨重,不切实际。1884年造的一架这样的飞机由数个重叠的机翼构成,并由蒸汽发动机驱动。据说,这架飞机曾经短时间地飞离地面。另一架飞机曾飞上天空,但坠毁了。
272.        直到发明了汽油发动机,飞机才取得真正的成功,因为汽油发动机重量又轻,功率又大,适宜装在飞机上。
273.        本世纪初,两个没有受过高深教育的年轻人威尔伯.莱特和奥维尔.莱特兄弟做了许多实验。他们刻苦地钻研滑翔机飞行技术,以便将来能驾驶飞机。莱特兄弟的第一架飞行器是用木片和布片制成的,看上去很不坚固,难以飞行。
274.        但是奥维尔就是乘坐这架飞机进行了第一次短距离飞行,并且安全地着陆了。那一天,试验性飞行重复了三次,其中最长的一次飞过852英尺,延续59秒。这架飞行器装有一台仅有16匹马力的发动机,但飞机的时速达到35英里。
275.        莱特兄弟到法国继续进行飞行试验,使所有观看的人都看得目瞪口呆。到了1908年,即使最怀疑态度的科学家也相信,一种实用的飞行器已经成为现实了。
276.        莱特兄弟奠定了现代飞行的基础。他们名扬四海,但是尽管各种荣誉接踵而至,他们始终保持谦虚的美德。他们对科学团体颁发给他们的奖章几乎毫不在意。他们多次拒绝作公开演说。
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281.        In 1943 Germany’s submarines – the U-boats – were winning the Battle of the Atlantic. Large numbers of U-boats were sending hundreds of Allied ships to the bottom of the ocean. The Atlantic became too dangerous for the Americans to send enough men and war materials across.
282.        Suddenly Germany’s U-boat losses doubled in one month. The next month they almost doubled again. In three months nearly 100 U-boats were sunk, mostly by aircraft. What had happened?
283.        Once befor, the U-boats had been in trouble because of aircraft. But they soon learned to avoid danger from the air by staying below the surface during the daytime. They had to come up at night to charge their batteries, but that was fairly safe at first. As soon as it became possible for the British Army to fit radar in their coastal command aircraft, there was a change.
284.        The Germans began to lose U-boats to these attacks. Because the radar allowed the planes to search large areas of the sea, to find a submarine even at night and in fog, and to attack before the U-boat could go under the water.
285.        What about its uses in peace?  Radar has made a great difference to the life of a ship’s officer. The radar screen in the wheelhouse shows him every ship that is near him, every piece of land, every buoy, every rock. And he can see them clearly at night or in thick fog.
286.         He can measure their ditance from his own ship. And he knows the speed of the other ships and the direction they are travelling in. Radar is a great help to the pilot of an airplane too. Advanced radar systems have made it possible for the pilot to land completely blind in perfect safety.
287.        The original radar combined these two units, as its English name RADAR showed: Radio Detection And Ranging. (Detection is finding something as the result of a search; Ranging is finding the exact distance.
281.        1943年,德国的潜水艇(他们称之为“U艇“)在大西洋战役中屡屡取胜,为数众多的U艇使数以百计的同盟国舰只葬身海底。大西洋变成了一个十分危险的地区,使美国人无法横渡,把足够的作战人员和物质送到欧洲。
282.        突然,在一个月之中德国U艇的损失倍增,第二个月损失几乎又加了一倍,在三个月中近100艘U艇沉入海底,其中大多数是被飞机炸沉的。这是怎麽回事呢?
283.        以前,U艇也曾一度因飞机的轰炸而处于困境。但是不久德国人就学会了让U艇白天呆在水下以躲避空袭。晚上,它们不得不升上水面给电池充电,但那样做也只是在开始时还算安全。当英国军队在他们的海岸警卫飞机上一装上雷达,情况立即发生了变化。
284.        这些袭击使德国人损失了许多U艇。因为雷达能帮助飞机搜索广大的海域,在黑夜和浓雾中找到潜艇,并在U艇来不及潜入水下时就发动攻击。
285.        在和平时期,雷达又有些什么用途呢?雷达给高级船员的生活带来很大变化,驾驶室的雷达屏幕使他们能看到附近的每一只船、每一片陆地、每一只浮筒和每一块礁石。不管是在黑夜里还是在浓雾中,他们都可以看得一清二楚。
286.        他可以测出船与这些目标之间的距离,他还能知道其他船舶的航速和航向。雷达对飞机的飞行员也有很大的帮助。先进的雷达系统能使飞行员绝对安全地做到完全盲目着陆。
287.        最初的雷达正如它的英文名称“雷达”(RADAR)所表示的那样,包括两个部分:无线电测物和测距。(通过搜索发现目标和测出目标的确切距离。)
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291.        In 1910, a German meteorologist named Wegener noticed that the edges of South America and Africa looked as if they might fit together like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. At first he did not want to write about this observation because it seemed unimportant; but then he began to feel that it might mean something.
292.        He wasn’t satisfied that this pattern was an accident. Why should such a pattern exist? As he thought about it more, he began to wonder if the two continents had once been parts of a single mass of land that had somehow drifted apare. He wrote, “At first I did not pay attention to the idea because I regarded it as improbable.”
293.        Scientists would not take it seriously and laughed at his idea. In the early 1920’s a friend of Wegener’s gave a copy of an article describing Wegener’s idea to a famous geologist to see whether he agreed with it. The geologist must have been enraged. The friend described the geologist’s reaction as the “only occasion on which I saw a man literally foaming at the mouth”.
294.        Often a correct idea will take many years before it is widely accepted as true. For example ,in 1543 at a time when most people believed that the sun and the planets circled around the earth .a man named Copernicus suggested that the earth and the other plants revolved around the sun. it took 200 years for this idea to become accepted by most scientists.
295.        The same is true of wegener's idea .His idea became the topic of hundreds of scientific articles only sixty years later in the 1970's.In fact ,polls taken of geologists in the late 1960's showed that eighty percent of them agreed with the basic idea of "continental drift".
296.        When people finally come up with an unusual idea,they must be very patient in trying to change the minds of others. It might be a correct attitude.
291.        1910年,有个叫魏格纳的德国气象学家注意到南美洲大陆和非洲大陆的边缘看起来似乎象拼扳游戏中可以相互契合的拼板。起初,他不想把这个发现写成文章,因为这似乎是无关紧要的。但是后来,他开始想到,这也许有点道理。
292.        说这是偶然的巧合,并不能使他感到满意。为什么竟然会有这样一种形状呢?经过进一步思考,他开始怀疑,这两个大陆会不会原来就是一整块陆地的两个部分,后来由于某种原因漂移开了呢?魏格纳写道:”起先我对此想法未加重视,加为我认为这不可能。
293.        “科学家们不愿把它当一回事并对这个想法嗤之以鼻。二十年代初,魏格纳的一位友人把一篇阐述魏格纳观点的文章送给一位著名的地质学家,看他是否同意这一观点。那位地质学家想必是给激怒了。这位朋友在谈到那位地质学家的反应时说:“这是我唯一的一次看到一个人简直气得暴跳如雷的情况。”
294.        通常,一个正确的想法要经过许多年才能为人们普遍接受。比如,在1543年,当大多数人相信太阳和其他行星是绕地球运转的时候。有一个叫哥白尼的人却提出,地球和其他行星是绕太阳运转的。过了二百年以后,这个观点才为大多数科学家所接受。
295.        魏格纳的想法也遇到同样的情况。只是到了六十年后的二十世纪七十年代,这个想法才成了数以百计的科学论文所讨论的题目。事实上,六十年代后期,在地质学家中间曾进行这一次民意测验,结果表明,有百分之八十的地质学家同意“大陆漂移”这一基本概念。
296.        当人们终于提出某种不同寻常的想法时,他们必须是非常耐心地去改变别人的思想。这也许是一个正确的态度。
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2101.        If a young woman of today could go back in time and visit her great--grandmother, she would probably be amazed at the heavy iron pots and pans being used in an old--fashioned kitchen. She would probably be very glad to get back to her own present-day kitchen, with its lightweight equipment, much of which is made of aluminum.
2102.        About a hundred and fifty years ago. when it was first produced, aluminum was so difficult to separate from the ores in which it was found that its price was higher than that of gold .
2103.        The price remained high until a new process was discovered for refining the metal with the aid of electricity approximately three quarters of a century later. The new method was so much cheaper that aluminum became practical for many purposes, one of the first of which was for making pots and pans.
2104.        By mixing it with other metals, scientists have been able to produce a variety of alloys, some of which have the strength of steel but weigh only one third as much. Aluminum is lightweight, rustproof and easily shaped into different forms.
2105.        Aluminum is found in the engines of automobiles, in the bodies of trucks, buses, and railroad cars, and in the hulls of boats. It is also used in many parts of airplanes. Today, the uses of aluminum are innumerable. perhaps its most important use is in transportation.
2106.        In fact, the huge "airbus" planes would probably never have been produced if aluminum did not exist. By making vehicles lighter in weight, aluminum has greatly reduced the amount of fuel needed to move them. Aluminum is also being used extensively in the building industry in some countries.
2107.        Because the source of aluminum is almost inexhaustible, we can expect that more and more uses will be found for this versatile metal. Aluminum is such a versatile metal, it is fortunate that bauxite, which is one of its chief sources, is also one of the earth's most plentiful substances.
2101.        如果今天的一位年轻主妇能回到以往的年代去拜望她的曾祖母,她大概会对老式厨房中所使用的笨重铁锅感到惊奇。她大概会非常高兴再回到她自己的现代化厨房,那里有种种轻便炊具,多数由铝制成。
2102.        大约一百五十年前,当第一次炼出铝来的时候,把铝从含铝的矿石中提炼出来极为困难,所以铝的价格比金子还贵。
2103.        大约七十五年以后,人们发现了一种用电力炼铝的新方法,铝的价格才得以降低了。新法炼铝经济得多,以致于铝就有了许多实际用途。制造各种炊具就是铝的最初用途之一。
2104.        科学家把铝和其他金属混合,已能生产出多种铝合金,其中有一些合金的强度和钢一样,但重量只有钢的三分之一。铝重量轻,不生锈,并易于加工成各种形状。
2105.        汽车发动机中有铝,载重卡车、公共汽车和火车的车身中有铝,船体中也有铝。飞机的许多部件也要用铝。今天,铝的用途多得不可胜数。铝最重要的用途也许是在运输上。
2106.        事实上,如果没有铝,号称“空中公共汽车”的大型客机也许永远造不出来。铝使运输工具重量减轻,从而大大降低了驱动这些运输工具所需的燃料消耗。在有些国家里,铝也广泛地用于建筑工业。
2107.        由于铝的矿源几乎取之不尽、用之不竭,那么我们可望这种多用途的金属将会越来越广泛地得到应用。铝是一种用途极为广泛的金属,好在铝的主要来源铝土矿是地球上蕴藏量最为丰富的物质之一。
2-11
2111.        Two generations ago petroleum became a revolutionary energy source used to transport man from place to place. Next, it was used to heat homes. more recently, people have begun using it to make clothing, wash dishes and so on. Tomorrow this versatile substance may be called in to help feed man. A look ahead gives petroleum an exciting role in the world of tomorrow.
2112.        The century since the first oil well was successfully drilled has been a lively one. But oil's second century promises to be even more exciting. Recently, oil industry chemists, physicists and engineers are carrying out large--scale scientific researches. The fruits of their study can prove to be very astonishing.
2113.        To create of synthetic protein from petroleum to help feed men and cattle is high on list of current oil company research projects in some countries .Manufacturing food from oil will some day become a reality.
2114.        Already responsible for many plastics, fibers, and synthetic rubber, petrochemicals will play an important role in tomorrow's demand for new things. As the name implies, petrochemicals are chemicals made from petroleum, from the hydrocarbons found in the latter.
2115.        By cracking and separating parts, scientists change these hydrocarbons into drip-dry shirts and plastic dishes.
2116.        Petrochemicals today account for one-fourth of all the chemicals made; in ten years this amount is expected to double. Petroleum is wonderfully compliant about being broken down and allowing its atoms to be arranged in new ways.        There indeed seems to be no end to the tasks that petroleum will be asked to do. People will not stop finding new uses for it.
2111.        五、六十年之前,石油在交通运输方面成了一种引起根本变革的能源。以后,人们把它用于家庭取暖。近年来,人们开始用它来制作服装,洗涤餐具等等。明天,这种用途广泛的物质可能会被用来为人们提供食物。展望未来可以看到,石油将在明天的世界上起到令人鼓舞的作用。
2112.        自从成功地打出第一口油井以来的这一个世纪一直是生气勃勃的。而石油的第二个世纪看来将会更加令人鼓舞。近来,石油化工专家、物理学家和工程师们正在进行大规模的科学研究,他们的研究成果可以说是非常惊人的。
2113.        从石油中制造合成蛋白来为人类和牲畜提供食物,在某些国家已成为石油公司当前研究计划中的重要项目。用石油制造食物总有一天会成为现实。
2114.        今天石油化工产品已经用来制造多种塑料、人造纤维和合成橡胶,而将来在对新的产品的需求中,仍将起重要的作用。顾名思义,石油化工产品是从石油中,从石油的碳氢化合物中提炼出来的化学制品。
2115.        科学家通过裂解和分馏,把这些碳氢化合物制成快干衬衣和塑料杯盘。
2116.        当前的石油化工产品占全部已生产的化学产品的四分之一,再过十年这个比例可望增加一倍。石油极易分解,其原子可重新排列。        看来,需要石油承担的任务是无穷无尽的,人们将不断探索它的新用途。
2-12
2121.        Nowaday the young scientist has a wide choice of subjects in which to specialize. Specialize he must; for each field of study has become so complicated that it requires the complete attention of the trained minds. Each is rapidly advancing, but every advance brings new problems that await solution.
2122.        Most scientific progress is the result of careful consideration of work that has already been done. The wonderful world which lies before us today has been built up by hardworking men with clear heads and inventive genius; and those who follow them along life's road will improve on their efforts .
2123.        Action or experiment can often end an argument or achieve a breakthrough. It is sometimes necessary to question, and even to disbelieve, some of the statements made by experts.
2124.        When men were wondering whether it was possible to reach India by sailing westwards from Europe, and whether there was any land on the other side of the Atlantic ocean, Christopher Columbus decided to act. He gathered some men together, invited them to go on board his three ships, and set out across the dangerous waters of the Atlantic ocean..
2125.        He was successful in finding land, but it was not India. The result of his action was that the arguments came to an end
2126.        Until the present century no one questioned the statement that the interval of time between two events was the same for every observer. Einstein disposed of this belief. he showed quite clearly that the length of time between two events depends on the velocity of the observer.        Any young men who wish to do research must be courageous enough to question old beliefs and do some original thinking about them.
2127.        Although we seem to know so much, our ignorance remains profound. Even when we pull an atom to pieces and study its particles, we do not really know what the particles are. We often do not reach the reality behind what we discover, and the more we learn, the better we realize our ignorance.
2121.        今天的青年科学家作专题研究的科目的选择是广泛的。他必须进行专门研究,因为每个研究领域都已变得非常复杂,需要受过专门训练的人专心致志地去进行研究。各门学科都在迅速发展,然而每个进展又带来了一些有待解决的新问题。
2122.        科学上的进步多半是对已做的工作加以深思熟虑的结果。如今呈现在我们面前的这个美好的世界是由那些具有清晰头脑和创造才智的、勤奋不息的人们所创造的,而后起之秀将创造出比他们更好的东西。
2123.        行动或实验往往能结束一场争论或取得某种突破。有时必须对专家们的某些论点提出疑问,甚至表示怀疑。
2124.        当人们对于从欧洲出发向西航行能否到达印度以及大西洋的另一边有没有陆地的问题正在议论纷纷的时候,克里斯托弗•哥伦布决心采取行动。他邀集了一些人,把他们请到他的三艘船上,扬帆穿越大西洋的惊涛骇浪。
2125.        他成功地发现了陆地,但那不是印度。他的行动的结果结束了这场争论。
2126.        在本世纪以前,从未有人怀疑过两个事件之间的时间间隔对每个观察者来说都是相同的。而爱因斯坦却推倒了这一信念,他清楚地证明,两个事件之间的时间间隔取决于观察者本身的速度。有志于研究工作的年轻人,要有足够的勇气大胆怀疑旧的信念,并对这些信念进行独创的思考。
2127.        尽管我们似乎所知很多,然而我们实在还是非常无知。即使我们能把原子分割成微粒,并加以研究,可是我们并不真正了解这些粒子是什么。我们并没有理解我们所发现的事物的实质;而我们学得越多,就越感到自己的无知。
3-1
311.        In the long history of man’s  inventiveness, discoverers seem to fall into two classes, The first is the ingenious person who sets out to find the solution to a problem. The second is the "lucky" one who appears to stumble upon something by "accident"
312.        But we should be clear about what we mean by "accident". For the "accidental" aspect of many great discoveries is that something unusual has happened when there is an observant person present who notices what has happened, and sets to work to find out why.
313.        One of “accident discovery”examples is: During the First World War, a well-known expert in metals was asked to investigate the problem of the "pitting" which spoiled gun barrels after they had been fired for a certain length of time. In his research, the first thing that he did was to order a number of barrels to be made of new steel alloys. One of these alloys contained a high percentage of chromium.
314.        A gun barrel was made of this new "chromium steel." But the first shot fired through it broke it into a dozen pieces. .So the scraps were thrown on to the waste heap. A week or two afterwards. The expert noticed that among the now rusty scraps of metal, the broken pieces of the chromium steel barrel were as bright as they had been originally. From this "accidental" discovery developed the enormous benefits of "stainless steel".
315.        Behind the great rubber industry of today lies a story of one man’s search and of his discovery by "accident" .Rubber in its natural state is hard when cold ,and soft and sticky when heated. Goodyear ,an American ,had been trying to find a way in which rubber could be made hard ,nonsticky, and yet elastic.
316.        By chance he dropped a small piece of molded rubber on to a stove and at the same time a piece of sulphur slipped out of his hand .He Scraped the bits of boiling rubber on to a plate .But when it had cooled down, what a different sort of rubber it was! It was cold ,and yet elastic .He had invented---by “accident”---the basic method of preparing rubber for commercial use.
317.        Most of discoveries happened when somebody asked himself: "Why? The list of discoveries by “accident”could fill a long book.
311.        在人类发明创造的漫长历史上,有所发现的人看来可分成两类,第一种是有心去寻求问题答案的人。而第二种则似乎是偶然碰上了某种事物的“幸运儿”。
312.        但是,我们必须弄清我们所说的“偶然”是指什么。因为许多伟大发现之所以”偶然“是由于在发生某些不平常的事情时,有一个观察力敏锐的人注意到了所发生的事,并着手去找出其原因。
313.        “偶然发现”的举例之一是:第一次世界大战期间,一位著名的金属专家受命研究枪筒在射击过一段时间以后因产生“锈斑”而损坏的问题。在研究中他首先吩咐用几种新型合金钢制造了一些枪筒。其中有一种合金钢的含铬量很高。"
314.        有一根枪筒就是用这种新的“铬钢”造的,但它开了第一枪就碎成了几十片。碎片被扔进了废料堆。过了一、两个星期,这位专家注意到,在那些生锈的废金属碎片中,那根铬钢枪筒的碎片仍然像原来一样地闪闪发光。“不锈钢”的巨大优点就是从这个“偶然”的发现中得来的。
315.        现代庞大的橡胶工业就是由于有一个人进行研究而“偶然”有所发现才建立起来的。天然橡胶冷时硬,受热时又软又粘。一个名叫古德伊尔的美国人多年来一直在努力寻找一种方法,使制成的橡胶硬而不粘,又有弹性。
316.        他偶然把一小块成型的橡胶碎块掉在炉子上,同时有一块硫从他手中滑下。他把这些滚热的橡胶碎块刮进一个盘子里,这些橡胶冷却后,成了一种不同的橡胶!橡胶虽已冷却,但仍富有弹性。他“偶然”地发明了大规模生产橡胶的基本方法。
317.        大多数的发现是在人们向自己问一个“为什么”的时候才产生的。“偶然”发现者的名册可多达写满一本厚书。
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321.        To hover means to hang or remain in the air over a particular place . The year 1959  saw the first appearance of a real flying ship in the world .The hovercraft can stay up without moving forwards.
322.        The hovercraft is a machine that can rise a short distance above the earth: it is round like a saucer ;and it has a short tower in the middle of its upper base.
323.        The first full-sized hovercraft weighed several tons, and was raised above the ground by air. Air was driven forcibly downwards through a round hole in the base of the machine by a 450 horse-power engine. The air which was thus driven below the round bottom was directed inwards towards the center, so that a round wall of air pressed towards the middle of the base. this compressed the air already there and the whole  machine was raised on a cushion of compressed air  
324.        But on their first journey ,the pilots on board had to endure the discomfort caused by the spray which came on board .This spray was thrown up from the sea when the air rushed downwards under the hovercraft and struck the water.
325.        A high-flying aeroplane flies at heights of 20,000 or 30,000 feet because the air is thinner at great heights ,and therefore offers less resistance to the movement of the aircraft than does the air nearer to the ground then what advantages has the hovercraft over the aeroplane? Since its invention ,the hovercraft has been fully developed and is in constant use.
326.        One of the advantages is that the hovercraft can move straight upwards like a helicoptor; it does not require a long runway for the take-off. The hovercraft needs no harbour and no airport .Besides ,it is amphibious
327.        Hovercraft consists of an enormous round metal base, with engines, cargo-space and living quarters for the crew on its upper surface. The engines turn fans which drive strong currents of air downwards under the base, thus raising the machine from the ground. It is driven by jets in any direction that the captain chooses.
328.        Spray has already proved itself a nuisance to the people on board. besides, during the river journeys, the people who live on the banks near the water may get very wet. if it crosses cultivated fields, it may damage the crops. So the hovercraft also has disadvantages.
321.        “HOVER(翱翔)的意思是悬浮或停留在某一特定地点的上空。1959年,世界上出现了一种真正的飞船,汽垫船能停留在空中,而不向前运动。
322.        汽垫船是一种能升离地面一小段距离的装置。它象一只圆形碟子,在上层甲板的中部有一个不长的塔式建筑。
323.        第一艘全尺寸的汽垫船重好几吨,它依靠空气升离地面。空气靠一台450匹马力的发动机通过汽垫船底部的一个圆孔向下猛烈喷出。在汽垫船圆形底部下面喷出的这股空气向中央集中,于是一堵圆形的空气墙就压向船底的中部。这就使那里原有的空气受到压缩,而整艘船就被升举到一个压缩空气的汽垫上。
324.        但驾驶员在进行初航时,不得不忍受由于浪花飞溅到甲板上而带来的不适。浪花是空气在汽垫船下面急速冲击水面而从海里卷上来的。
325.        高空飞行的飞机能在二,三万英尺的高度上飞行,因为高空的空气比较稀薄,因此它对飞机运动的阻力比接近地面的空气阻力小。那么,汽垫船比起飞机来又有哪些优越性呢?汽垫船自从发明以来,已得到充分的发展,并且一直在使用。
326.        一个优点是汽垫船能象直升飞机一样垂直上升,不需要有很长的起飞跑道。汽垫船既不需要港口也不需要机场。此外,它还可水陆两用。
327.        汽垫船有一个巨大的圆形金属船体,发动机,货舱及船员的生活舱都在它较上面一层的船面上。发动机带动鼓风机,使强大的气流在船体底部朝下方喷出,从而将船升离地面。汽垫船靠着几个喷管可朝船长选择的任何方向运动。
328.        浪花给船上的人造成不少麻烦。此外,汽垫船在江河里航行时,生活在两岸附近的人们可能会被溅得很湿。要是汽垫船穿越农田,可能会损坏庄稼,因此,气垫船也有缺点。
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331.        Black and white television gives us less information than we usually have from normal vision. Nobody who has ever seen good –quality colour television can ever be completely happy with black and white again . Most of us see everything in colour all our lives, and we base quite a large number of our daily actions on colour information. Although the artistic achievements of directors working in black and white have been considerable, there is no doubt that the future is with colour.
332.        Scanning was first used in the transmission of pictures by telegraph. A television camera does not look at a scene as a whole in the same way as a film camera; instead, it scans. A light beam looked at a very small part of the picture and translated it into an electric current, which varied in strength according to the amount of light which passed through the picture at that point. It then moved on to the next tiny part of the picture, working across it from left to right, then moving down a line and repeating the process, until it had scanned the whole picture.
333.                At the receiving end, the signals were re-translated into a series of dots which, when looked at from a normal reading distance, reproduced the original picture. The television camera also looks at a scene as a series of dots; each dot of light is translated by the camera tube into an electronic signal.
334.                A colour transmission contains the same information as a black and white transmission. An additional signal carries the colour information. Three colour-red, green and blue---will, mixed together in the right proportion, give us white light. Change the proportion, or leave out one of the colours, and a range of other colours becomes available: red and green light gives us yellow; green and dark blue gives us a lighter blue; and so on.
335.                A colour television camera analyses the light it receives into red, green and blue. In place of the single camera tube of the black and white camera, it has three tubes---one for each of these colours --and the signals produced by them correspond to the amount of each colour.
336.                Colour television is really a wonder. Without the use of colour for closed--circuit work there would not be such excellent demonstrations of operations and classroom instructuon in medical schools and monitoring of certain industrial processes in factories as we have today.
337.                Today colour receivers are not much more expensive then black and white sets. Nevertheless, many countries are fully committed to colour transmission. How long will it be before black and white sets are found only in museums?
331.        黑白电视提供的信息比我们正常的视觉所得到的要少。看过优质彩色电视的人在也不可能对黑白电视感到完全满意了。我们大多数人一生中看到的每样东西都是有颜色的,我们的许多日常活动都是根据彩色信息进行的。虽然黑白电视的导演们取得了相当巨大的艺术成就,但毫无疑问,未来是属于彩色电视的。
332.        扫描最初用于电报的图象传真。电视摄像机不象摄影机那样把一个镜头看成一幅完整的画面,而是对画面进行扫描。一束光线投射在极小的一部分图像上,把它转换成电流,电流的强度随着通过该点图像的光束亮而变化。接着,光束移向图象的下一个点,从左向右进行扫描下一行,这种过程不断重复,直到整幅图像扫描完毕。
333.                在接收端,这些信号重新转换成一系列的光点,从正常的阅读距离看上去,这些光点又再现为原来的画面。电视摄像机同样把图像看成一系列的光点,每个光点都由摄像管转换成电子信号。
334.                彩色电视传输包含着和黑白电视传输相同的信息。但有一种附加信号传送彩色信息。红,绿,蓝三种颜色如果按恰当的比例混合,便能产生白色。改变混合比例,或排除三种颜色中的某一种,就能得到一系列其他的颜色:红和绿产生黄色,绿和蓝产生淡蓝,等等。
335.                彩色电视摄像机把接收到的光分解为红,绿,蓝三色。黑白摄像机只有一个摄像管,彩色摄像机却有三个摄像管每一个摄像产生一种颜色。由这些摄像管产生的信号都和每一种颜色的量相对应。
336.                彩色电视真是一个奇迹。如果闭路电视不用彩色,就不会有我们今天在医学院进行的手术和课堂教学的精彩示范,以及对工厂中某些工业流程的监控。
337.        当前        彩色电视接收机不比黑白接收机昂贵的多,尽管如此,许多国家还是完全致力于发展彩色电视传输。还要过多久,黑白电视机才会被送进博物馆呢?
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341.        It might be a simple decision to take a raincoat when going to school or to delay the start of a football match ,or it might be a more important one to divert an airliner to a fog-free airport. We all use weather information of one kind or another, mostly to make decisions.
342.        Millions of decisions like these are made every day ,and to help decision-makers the weathermen can provide information about the past or the future .For the past they have compiled a great mass of statistical and climatological data .on which they can draw to answer all sorts of inquiries; for the future they prepare forecasts.
343.        Following are just a few of the activities for which specialized weather services are provided.
           Nowadays most aircraft fly high, well above the clouds and weather, but their crews are still vitally interested in landing conditions at their destination, I,e. the cloud base and visibility there .if bad weather is expected the forecaster must be able to suggest another airport within the range of the aircraft where the weather will be suitable for landing.
344.        Ships ,whether large or small ,are often at the mercy of the winds and the waves. the large ones can usually ride out the biggest storms, but smaller ones may have to take avoiding action to prevent loss or damage. The weather services help by warning of the coming of strong winds and by predicting their movement.
345.        Many long-range lorry operators plan their journeys on the basis of special weather forecasts ;and things such as the degree of refrigeration required for perishable goods during transportation can be determined from temperature forecasts
346.        Trains can be help up by frozen points. the icing of electric conductor rails ,and fog, so warnings are provided by weathermen in time for precautionary measures to be taken
347.        Farmers have always had a particular interest in the weather because it affects their work and the products of their work at all stages .they like just the right amount of sunshine ,all coming at the right time. perfect weather is not normally provided and the farmer has to make the best of what he gets ,so to plan his operations he relies on the weathermen..
341.        上学时拿件雨衣或者推迟一场足球赛,这也许是一种简单的决定;改变客机航向,飞到无雾的机场降落,这也许是一种较为重要的决定。我们大家都要利用这种或那种气象消息,主要用来作出决定。
342.        象这样的决定每天总要作出几百万个。气象人员能够提供有关过去和未来的气象消息,来帮助要做出决定的人们。他们编排了大量有关过去的气象统计资料,随时可供提取以回答各种咨询,他们还准备有关未来的气象预报。
343.        气象人员为某些部门设立了各种专门的气象服务项目,下面仅是其中的一些例子。
现在,大多数的飞机都在远远超过云层和恶劣天气的高空上飞行,但是飞行人员对目的地的着陆条件,既云层和能见度,还是十分关心的。如果预计天气恶劣,气象预报人员应能够建议在飞机航程以内的另一个天气条件适合着陆的机场。
344.        船舶不论大小,常常都得听任风浪的摆布。巨轮通常能安然穿过最大的暴风雨。但是小船也许就得采取避让措施,以免遭受损失和破坏。气象台发出大风警报并预报大风动向,向人们提供帮助。
345.        许多长途货运汽车驾驶员按照专门的气象预报安排他们的行车计划,例如运输途中易腐货物所需的冷藏温度一类的事情,便可以根据气温预报来决定。
346.        结冰的地段,导电铁轨上发生的冰冻,降雾等都会使火车停驶,因此,气象人员及时发出警报,以便采取预防措施。
347.        农民从来对天气都特别关心,因为天气对他们的农活和农作物生长的每个阶段都有影响。他们需要适量的阳光,而且日照时间也要适当。天气一般不会尽如人愿,农民必须充分利用天时,所以他们要规划好种植工作就得依赖气象人员。
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351.        To meet the demands of industry, technology, and other sciences, mathematicians have had to invent new branches of mathematics and expand old ones. Never before have so many people applied such abstract mathematics to so great a variety of problems.
352.        Applied mathematicians have been coping successfully with the world's problems at a time, curiously enough ,when Pure mathematicians seem almost to have lost touch with the real world. Pure mathematicians don't much care whether mathematics will ever have any practical use. Mathematics has always been abstract.
353.        Yet the very abstractness of mathematics makes it useful. By applying its concepts to worldly problems the mathematician can often brush away the details and reveal simple patterns. Celestial-mechanics, for example ,enables astronomers to calculate the positions of the planets at any time in the past or future and to predict the movements of comets .Now this ancient branch of mathematics has suddenly become impressively practical for calculating orbits of earth satellites.
354.        Mathematicians who are interested in down-to-earth problems have learned to solve many that were beyond the scope of mathematics only a decade or two ago. They have developed new statistical methods for controlling quality in high-speed industrial mass production
355.        They have created an elaborate theory of "information" that enables communications engineers to evaluate precisely telephone, radio, and television circuits.
356.        They have analysed the design of automatic controls for such complicated systems as factory production lines and supersonic aircraft. Now they are ready to solve many problems of space travel, from guidance and navigation to flight dynamics  of missiles beyond the earth's atmosphere.
357.        In designing computer and programming them to carry out instructions, mathematicians have had to develop new techniques. Now that they have electronic computers ,mathematicians are solving problems they would not have dared tackle a few years ago. In a matter of  minutes they can get an answer that previously would have required months or even years of calculation.
358.        While computers have as yet contributed little to pure mathematical theory, they have been used to test certain relationships among numbers. It now seems possible that a computer some day will discover and prove new mathematical theorems.
351.        为了满足工业,技术和其他科学的需要,数学家不得不创立新的数学分支,并发展旧有的数学。以前从未过那么多的人把抽象的数学应用于种类如此繁多的问题上。
352.        说也奇怪,正当理论数学家似乎差不多与现实世界脱离接触的时候,应用数学家却一直在成功地处理着世界上的许多问题,理论数学家对于数学究竞有没有价值并不关心。数学从来就是抽象的。
353.        然而,正是数学的这种高度抽象性使它变的十分有用。数学家把数学概念用来解决实际问题,就能剔除细节而揭示出其中的简要模式。例如天体力学使天文学家能计算出行星过去或将来任何时候的位置,并能预报慧星的运行情况。现在为了计算地球卫星的轨道,这一古老的数学分支一下子就变得极为实用而引人注目。
354.        有志于解决实际问题的数学家们已学会解决许多在一、二十年以前还不属于数学领域的问题。他们研究出新的统计方法,用来检查高速度工业大规模生产的产品质量。
355.        他们创立了精密复杂的“信息”理论,使通信工程师有可能对电话、收音机和电视的电路作出精确的估算。
356.        他们已经对工厂生产线和超音速飞机等这样一些复杂系统的自动控制装置的设计作出了分析。现在,他们还在准备解决太空飞行方面的许多问题:从地球大气层以外的制导,导航直到导弹的飞行动力学等等。
357.        在设计计算机和为他们编制执行指令的程序时,数学家们必须研究新的技术。由于有了电子计算机,数学家们现在正在解决几年之前还不敢着手解决的问题。只消用几分钟时间,他们就能取得过去需要成年累月的计算才能得出的答案。
358.        计算机至今对纯数学理论贡献还很少,但他们已被用来检验数与数之间的某些关系。现在看来,很可能有一天,计算机会发现和证明新的数学定理。
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361.        More than 90 percent of the energy that keeps a city's pulse beating today comes from the combustion of fossil fuels. Even the best coal and purest oil will pollute the air with their manifold combustion products.
362.        There are chemical fuels that are clear and smokeless. Hydrogen and ammonia come to mind ;methanol is another possibility. Before too many years have passed, corner gasoline stations may be replaced by ammonia or methanol stations or battery-recharging terminals.
363.        Most of us think of ammonia as rather disagreeable. Hydrogen has a reputation for being explosive and dangerous. The chemical and space industries, however ,have tamed both fuels. In recent years. In some ways, anhydrous ammonia is just as safe to handle as gasoline; and liquid hydrogen is becoming common as a high-performance rocket fuel.
364.        It is less well known that fully 80 percent of the world's fertilizer requirements are met by synthesizing ammonia from natural gas and steam. Millions of tons of ammonia are consumed annually in agriculture. Consumption increases almost exponentially. Thus, we can imagine ammonia production plants that will "fuel" both farm and city .
365.        However, ammonia, methanol or hydrogen will probably never replace petroleum completely. But the wasteful burning of petroleum products seems a great waste of those useful petrochemicals that could otherwise be turned into lubricants, synthetic fabrics, and many other useful products.
366.        At present the production of ammonia from electrolytic hydrogen is not economical. If extremely low-cost power were ever to become available from large unclear power plants ,electrolytic hydrogen would become competitive
367.        The adoption of an ammonia fuel economy would represent a revolutionary change in the world.That gas station on the corner will not begin dispensing ammonia instead of gasoline for a decade or two. Synthetic sources of energy are ,nevertheless ,an inevitability.
361.        在今天,使城市的脉搏保持跳动的能量中,来自燃烧矿物燃料的远远超过百分只九十。甚至优质的煤和最纯洁的石油也以其各种各样的燃烧产物污染空气。
362.        有些化学燃料是清洁无烟的,人们会想到氢和氨,可能还有甲醇。用不了很多年,街头的加油站就可能为氨或甲醇供应站,或者电池充电站所代替。
363.        我们大多数人会认为氨很令人讨厌,而氢又以其易爆和危险著称。然而,化学和航天工业近年来以把这两种燃料制服了。在某种程度上说,无水氨使用起来与汽油一样安全,而液态氢正日益普遍地被用作高效能的火箭燃料。
364.        人们还不太知道,世界上所需要的化肥中足足有百分之八十是靠天然气和水蒸汽合成的氨来满足的。在农业上每年要消耗上千万吨的氨。消耗量几乎按指数级数在增长,因此,我们可以想象,生产氨的工厂将来不仅可以向农场“供应”肥料,还可以向城市“供应”燃料。
365.        诚然,氨,甲醇或氢也许永远不会完全代替石油。但是,不加节制地燃烧石油产品看来是一种极大浪费,因为这些有用的石油化工产品本来可以用来制造润滑剂,合成纤维和许多其他有用的产品。
366.        目前,从电解氢中产生氢是不够经济的。但如果能从大型核电站得到成本极低的电力,那么电解氢的竞争力就会增强。
367.        而采取以氨为燃料的节约措施将成为世界上一个革命性的变革。在一,二十年内,街头的加油站还不会停止供应汽油而改为供应氨。然而,通过合成取得能源势在必行。
3-7
371.        Physics can be defined simply As the study of matter and motion. as such ,it is the science that is most basically concerned with uncovering the laws that govern the action of the material world. The laws ascertained by the physicist often become the bases for new sciences.
372.        For example ,we will study the way in which Galileo and Newton discovered the basic laws that govern the motion of falling bodies .Today, this knowledge allows us to send probes to the farthest reaches of the solar system and to put men on the surface of the moon--things that Newton could only have dreamed about. In the last century, physicists discovered the laws that govern the motion of fluids. Scientists are now applying these laws to problems as diverse as the flow of protoplasm in a cell and the flow of traffic in city
373.        Thus ,when we learn about the way that scientific discoveries were made in the past, we will be learning about things that affect us considerably in our daily lives; when we learn about the kind of research that is going on in the sciences today, we will be getting some insight into things that will be affecting our lives in the future.
374.        Of course, physics is only one science among many .in general, we speak of three kinds of "sciences"—physical, biological, and social .The physical sciences (physics, chemistry ,and astronomy) deal with material ,inanimate systems. The biological sciences deal with living systems ,while the social sciences deal with individual or group behavior
375.        Nevertheless, physics plays a rather special role among the sciences. As the science that is concerned with understanding the laws of material objects ,it is often intimately involved in the basic workings of the other physical sciences .For example,  astronomers have been using the laws of physics to calculate the motions of stars and planets. Chemists have been using the laws of the atom and of heat transfer to deal with reactions they study..
376.        Biophysics is concerned with the application of the laws governing  atoms and molecules to the large molecules found in living organisms.One of the most exciting developments in modern times has been the birth of biophysics.
371.        简单地说,物理学是一门研究物质和运动的学科。就这点而论,这门科学最为关注的基本问题是:揭示支配物质世界作用的规律。物理学家所探明的那些规律常常成为新学科的基础。
372.        例如,我们要研究伽利略和牛顿发现支配落体运动的基本规律的途径。今天,这一知识使我们能够把探测器送到太阳系的最远端,把人送入月球表面,这一切对牛顿来说,只可能是梦想而已。上个世纪,物理学家们发现了支配流体运动的规律。现在科学家们正把这些规律用来解决像细胞中原生质的流动和城市交通流量等这样一些不相同的问题。
373.        因此,当我们了解过去的科学发现如何得来时,我们就要了解哪些问题在我们当代生活中有着重大的影响;当我们了解当今各门学科中正在进行的某种研究工作时,我们就要深入研究那些将会影响到我们未来生活的事物。
374.        当然,物理学仅仅是许多科学中的一门。通常我们说有三种“科学”—自然科学,生物科学和社会科学。自然科学(如物理学,化学和天文学)研究物质的,既无生命的系统,生物科学研究生命系统,而社会科学研究个人或集团的行为。
375.        不过,物理学在各门学科中起着相当特殊的作用。作为一门旨在认识物体规律的科学,它常常与其它各门自然科学的基本作用密切相关,例如,天文学家一直在利用物理学定律来计算恒星和行星的运动,化学家们一直在利用原子和热传递等定律来论述他们所研究的化学反应。
376.        生物物理学把支配原子和分子的规律应用到生物有机体的大分子上。生物物理学的诞生,是当代最激动人心的成就之一。
3-8
381.        Miniaturization of equipment is the process by which the overall weight and volume of both components and equipment are reduced.
          The trend toward miniaturization of components and equipment of engineering systems since 1940 has been influenced by several factors. First ,and most obviously, the utmost reduction in overall weight and volume is essential to the usefulness and ,in fact, existence of certain types of systems.
382.        It is the weight and volume of the payload that have a profound influence on the size of the launching vehicle necessary to put the payload into orbit.Therefor ,aerospace developments have spurred the emphasis toward reduced weight and volume ,particularly in the case of astronautical endeavors.
383.        Second ,the concepts of reliability have played an important role in the trend toward miniaturization. Miniaturization of an equipment often results in a reduction of the number of components in that equipment or a reduction in the number of factors influencing the reliability of that equipment, such as the number of soldered connections in electronic components. Reliability increases obviously as the number of components or sources of potential difficulty are reduced.
384.        Third, accompanying the strong wish for overall reduction in weight and volume is the need to reduce the power consumption of components and  equipments. This need is urgently felt in aerospace devices, in which the weight of the necessary power producing equipment is vital .Power requirements can be equally important for ground-based equipment, for example ,in automatic computers, the use of great number of identical components, all of which have some power requirement, can result in overall equipment that has a very great power requirement .
385.        Thus miniaturization and a reduced input power requirement can reduce the need for supporting equipment for heat dissipation, such as radiators or air conditioners. Fourth, the greatly expanding need for electronic assemblies has led to studies of different techniques of automatic production of functionally standardized components. To some extent the smaller the assembly, the more adaptable is its manufacture to automated techniques.
381.        设备小型化是指元件和设备的总重量和总体积都缩小的过程。
自1940年以来,工程系统的元件和设备小型化的趋势已受到几种因素的影响。第一,十分明显的是,最大限度地减少总重量和总体积,这对于某些系统来说,是关系到是否适用,实际上也就是能否存在下去的重要问题。
382.        正是有效载荷的重量和体积,对于必须将其送入轨道的运载工具的大小,有着深刻的影响。因此航天事业的发展,特别是对于宇宙航行事业来说,都十分强调减少重量和体积。
383.        第二,可靠性的概念在小型化的趋势中起着重要的作用。设备的小型化通常会导致该设备元件数量的减少或是影响该设备可靠性的因素,例如电子元件中焊接点的减少。随着元件亦既可能产生麻烦的根源的减少,可靠性就明显地增加了。
384.        第三,之所以强烈希望全面减少重量和体积,是由于需要减少元件和设备的能量消耗。在航空航天器械方面,这一需要尤为迫切,因为生产力所必须的设备的重量是至关重要的。动力要求对于地面设备也同样重要,例如,在自动计算机方面,许多完全相同的元件在使用时都有一定的功率要求,因而整个设备对动力的需求就会非常之大。
385.        因此,小型化和减少输入功率的要求,就能削减散热设备,如散热器或空调等附加设备。第四,由于对电子装配件的需要不断深入增长,就要求研究功能标准化的元件如何实现自动化生产的技术。在一定程度上,装配件越小,其制造过程对于自动化技术的适应性也就越强。
3-9
391.        Ordinary power stations differ from nuclear power station only in the source of heat .In place of coal or oil-fired boilers, they use a nuclear reactor to provide the heat. The reactor is contained in a giant pressure vessel, a spherical  vessel about seventy feet in diameter .
392.        Inside the pressuredrum are thousands of graphite blocks ;standing in channels between the blocks are bars of uranium metal an inch or so in diameter ,sheathed in an alloy of magnesium. Heat is developed in the uranium metal by the fission or splitting of some of the atomic nuclei and is carried away by carbon dioxide gas under pressure which is blown through the channels past the uranium bars. The hot carbon dioxide is carried through pipes to tall towers called heat exchangers which contain hundreds of tubes filled with water .
393.        The carbon dioxide is cooled and the water heated so that it turns to steam, The steam is carried through pipes to steam turbines which drive the electric generators .The cool carbon dioxide from the heat exchanger is pumped back to the reactor to be heated once more..
394.        Much of the complication of the nuclear power station reactor is ,as you see, due to the problems of carrying the heat away and raising steam with it. The simplest sort of reactor is no more than a pile of graphite bricks, each about eight inches square, with channels cut in them in which the uranium metal bars sit .The bars are, in fact ,sheathed in aluminium to prevent the uranium from being oxidized and the radioactive waste products from escaping.
395.        A simple "pile" of uranium bars and graphite bricks, if you make it large enough, will "go critical" and start to generate power. This comes about because a chain reaction stars in the uranium bars .The uranium obtained from ores consists of mainly heavy uranium,uranium-238,mixed with about one part in 140 of a slightly lighter kind of uranium-uranium-235.
396.        The nuclei of the heavy uranium occasionally split up spontaneously into two fragments of roughly equal size-the process is called fission and the fragments fission products.        Efficient as it is, the nuclear power station reactor is dangerous. Therefore the whole reactor is heavily shielded and its operators avoid being exposed to radioactivity.
391.        一般电站与核电站只是在热源方面有所不同。核电站用核反应堆代替燃煤锅炉或燃油锅炉提供热量。反应堆安置在一个巨大的高压容器中,这是一种球形容器,直径大约为70英尺。
392.        在耐压圆筒内部有数以千计的石墨块,在石墨块之间的沟槽中插着直径为一英寸左右用镁合金屏蔽的金属铀棒。由于一部分原子核的裂变(或称分裂),金属铀棒发热,热量由受压的二氧化碳气体经沟槽吹过铀棒时带走。灼热的二氧化碳通过输送管送入称为热交换器的高塔中,塔内装有数百个注满水的管子。
393.        二氧化碳冷却时,水受热变成蒸汽,蒸汽经过输送管进入汽轮机,汽轮机再带动发电机。从热交换器出来的冷却了的二氧化碳用泵压回反应堆,以便再次加热。
394.        大家知道,核电站的反应堆之所以十分复杂,是由于存在着需要将热量派出并用它来产生蒸汽的问题。最简单的一种反应堆只不过是一堆石墨砖,每块砖约8英寸见方,砖里有槽,槽内插着金属铀棒。实际上,这些铀棒是用铝屏蔽的,以免铀氧化和放射性废物逾出。
395.        简简单单的一“堆”铀棒和石墨砖,如果做成一定大小的话,就会“达到临界点”而开始产生动力。这是由于在铀棒中发生了连锁反应而来的。从矿石中获得的主要由重铀(铀238)组成,铀238与稍轻的铀235以大约140与1的比例混合。
396.        重铀的原子核有时会自发地分裂成两块大小大致相等的碎块。这个过程称为裂变,而碎块就叫做核裂变物。        核电站反应堆效率尽管很高,但很危险,因此整个反应堆应严加屏蔽,以防操作人员受到辐射伤害。
3-10
3101.        It has been recognized for a very long while that continued exposure to noise of high intensity would lead to loss of hearing .Less is know about the effects of noise on performance outside the laboratory than is the case with lighting and heating.
3102.        There have been occupational deafnesses, for example ,that of the boiler-maker. In recent years ,the development of sensitive and accurate measuring equipment has made it possible to measure the acuity of hearing of any individual at different frequencies .Other equipment has been devised which analyses noise into the various frequencies of the sounds of which it is made up and records the loudness at the different frequencies .High intensity in the higher frequencies does much more damage than high intensity at the low frequencies.
3103.        It is probably fairly generally accepted at present that, if the sound pressure level exceeds 85 decibels and the ear is to be subjected to noise at this level continuously, then protection of the ear to reduce sound pressure on it is necessary. This level is somewhere between that created by very heavy street traffic and that caused by the arrival of an underground train in a station.
3104.        The following are results of two experiments ,one reported in 1935 and one in 1960. These experiments show that the noise has its effects on performance.
Both were carried out in factories ;both compared the working results of two groups of people on the same kind of work ;in both cases noise was reduced for one group but not for the other.
3105.        In 1935,two researchers recorded the results of the wearing of ear-defenders by two weavers. These devices considerably reduced the sound pressure  level on the ear, and from records taken over many months it was found that the personal efficiency of those wearing them had increased by 7.5 per cent.
3106.        In 1960,two other researchers compared quantity and quality of work of operators of cine-film perforating machines. In one room where the machines were installed, the sound pressure level was reduced by the use of soundabsorbing materials on walls, ceilings and baffles between machines.
3107.        Although the quantity of work done by the workers in the experimental group did not differ from that of the control group in rooms where no insulating material had been installed, the quality of their work was significantly higher.
3101.        人们早已认识到持续不断地接触高强度噪音会导致耳聋。在实验室以外人们对于噪音对人的行为的影响要比光和热的影响了解的少。
3102.        有些职业性的耳聋,象锅炉制造工就是这样产生的。近年来研制出了一些灵敏而精确的测量设备,因而有可能测出一个人在不同频率下的听力。设计出的另外一些设备能够将构成该噪音的各种音响频率加以分析,并将不同频率的响度记录下来,频率较高而强度也高时所引起的破坏要比频率低而强度高时厉害得多。
3103.        目前已经相当普遍认为,如果声压级超过85分贝而且耳朵要不断承受这一声压级的噪音时,则必须降低声压以保护耳膜。这个声压级大约介于极为繁忙的街道交通的地铁进站时所引起的噪音之间。
3104.        下面是两次实验的结果,一次是在1935年,另一次是在1960年报道的。这些试验表明噪音对人们的行为是有影响的。这两次实验都是在工厂里进行的。两次实验都比较了同一工种两组工人的实际效果。两次实验中都对一组工人减轻了噪音,而对另一组没有减轻。
3105.        1935年的那次实验中,两个研究人员记录了两个纺织工人戴了护耳器后的结果。这种装置大大降低了耳膜上所受到的声压级。从连续好几个月所取得的记录中发现,戴有耳器的人个人工作效率提高了近百分之七点五。
3106.        1960年,另外两个研究人员比较了电影胶片穿孔机操作人员的工作质量和数量。在一个装有这种机器的房间里,由于在墙壁、天花板的机器之间的挡板上使用了吸音材料,声压级降低了。
3107.        尽管试验组工人所做的工作和室内没有装上隔音材料的对照组工人的工作在数量上并无差别,但他们的工作质量要高得多。
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  • 杨立青 (2009-8-26 09:27:50)

    不顶都不行
  • 山房山 (2010-7-09 13:10:18)

    ding..................
  • 布衣 (2010-7-09 20:58:09)

    山人有心
  • 大美 (2010-7-10 12:49:19)

    工程,中级考试,这些题都没有,今天验证了
  • 个个 (2010-7-10 13:28:45)

    考得咋样啊?八十分能挡住不?
  • 大美 (2010-7-10 13:30:42)

    考的挺好的,只要不挡60分下面就行